wariant 1 wariant 1 - przekrój A-A wariant 2 wariant 2 - przekrój B-B
Rod bearing method used in connecting rod mechanisms to convert
reciprocating motion into rotary motion
Category, number and date of application:
WYN: (21) 380147, (22) 10-07-2006


The method of the connecting-rod bearing in connecting-rod systems transferring the reciprocating motion into the
rotary one.


The subject of the invention. The subject of the invention is the method of the connecting-rod bearing in
connecting-rod systems transferring the reciprocating motion into the rotary one, being widely used especially in
combustion engines as well as in all other life … - where there is a need to transfer the reciprocating motion into the
rotary one and in the opposite direction.

Technological state-of-the-art. The classical connecting-rod system used in combustion engines is well
known, in which the reciprocating motion is transferred into the rotary motion of the shaft. In that solution the piston
is connected to the small end of the connecting-rod by means of the piston pin, whilst the crankshaft is connected to
the big end of the connecting-rod. Slide parts of the connecting-rod tangent to the piston pin and crank-pin of the
crankshaft make flat plane. Thus superficial adhesion of the slide parts of the connecting-rod is being disturbed even
at little perpendicular plane deviation of the connecting-rod axe to crankshaft axe and this causes significant
consumption of these elements.

The essence of the invention. The method of the connecting-rod bearing in connecting-rod systems
transferring the reciprocating motion into the rotary one is a solution in which the motion of a working element in
reciprocating motion is transferred into the rotary motion of the shaft by means of the connecting-rod, whilst slide
parts of the connecting-rod bearing are spherical. Thanks to it even at significant perpendicular plane deviation of the
connecting-rod axe to crankshaft axe, superficial adhesion of the slide parts of the connecting-rod is being retained.
Due to this the usage period of this system increases a lot towards the usage period of classical connecting-rod
system.
The method of the connecting-rod bearing in connecting-rod systems transferring the reciprocating motion
into the rotary one, used in combustion engines, may be done in two versions, i.e. - version one: the connecting-rod
is connected to the piston by means of the piston pin having spherical surface for small end of the connecting-rod
bearing and version two: small end of the connecting-rod bearing with spherical head mounted in spherical bearing
integrated with a piston.
Version one: A slidable piston has been placed inside a cylinder liner fixed within the engine. Piston pin was fixed in
the piston hubs (piasty). In the middle of the piston pin a spherical surface was assigned for small end of the
connecting-rod bearing. The piston pin spherical surface diameter is less or equal or a little bit more than the piston
pin endings diameter, which are placed in the piston hubs. Parts of the piston pin between spherical surface and
endings placed in the piston hubs have diameter less than piston pin endings diameter and piston pin spherical
surface. Piston pin placed in the piston hubs is secured against possible displacement by means of rings placed in
piston hubs grooves. The connecting-rod is an element divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part is
integrated with the connecting-rod whilst the upper part is a connecting-rod cap, fastened by means of screws to the
lower part of the connecting-rod. The interior part of the connecting-rod is a spherical running track. Inside of it there
is spherical part of piston pin bearing. The connecting-rod also has side parts, which are bushings coaxial with the
piston pin. Inside diameter of side parts is slightly bigger than the diameter of those piston pin parts, which are
located between piston pin endings and spherical surface of the piston pin. The inside part of side parts of the
connecting-rod may be of shape of the truncated cone. This solution makes possible to correct all deviations during
the system work. The big end of the connecting-rod along with its cap has inside a spherical bearing bush with
bearing on a spherical connecting-rod crank-pin of the engine crankshaft. At both sides of the spherical connecting-
rod crank-pin of the engine crankshaft there are edges in the distance a little bit more than the width of the big end of
the connecting-rod. Thanks to it the connecting-rod has possibility to correct all deviations during the engine work, at
the same time retaining the superficial adhesion of the spherical bearing bush of the connecting-rod to the spherical
crank-pin of the crankshaft. The inclination angle of edges at both sides of spherical crank-pin of the crankshaft
depends on the shape of the big end of the connecting-rod and its cap. It is selected to enable edges of the spherical
crank-pin of the crankshaft to be linear tangent with sides of the big end of the connecting-rod and its cap sides
during connecting-rod turning.
Version two: A slidable piston has been placed inside a cylinder liner fixed within the engine. At the lower part
of the piston bottom, at the crankshaft chamber side a semicircular piston bearing integrated with the piston was
placed. Inside the bearing a spherical head of the connecting-rod was placed. A cap of the spherical head of the
connecting-rod is fastened to semicircular piston bearing by means of the screws. It has a semicircular recess and
a hole. Via the hole connecting-rod shank is put through. The width of the hole is slightly bigger than the width of the
connecting-rod shank, whilst its length is slightly bigger than the range of  deflection of the connecting-rod to enable
correction of possible deviation during the engine work. The big end of the connecting-rod along with its cap has
inside a spherical bearing bush with bearing on a spherical connecting-rod crank-pin of the engine crankshaft. At
both sides of the spherical connecting-rod crank-pin of the engine crankshaft there are edges in the distance a little
bit more than the width of the big end of the connecting-rod. Thanks to it the connecting-rod has possibility to correct
all deviations during the engine work, at the same time retaining the superficial adhesion of the spherical bearing
bush of the connecting-rod to the spherical crank-pin of the crankshaft. The inclination angle of edges at both sides
of spherical crank-pin of the crankshaft depends on the shape of the big end of the connecting-rod and its cap. It is
selected to enable edges of the spherical crank-pin of the crankshaft to be linear tangent with sides of the big end of
the connecting-rod and its cap sides during connecting-rod turning.

  The example of manufacturing the invention. The method of the connecting-rod bearing in connecting-rod systems
transferring the reciprocating motion into the rotary one was presented in two ways of manufacturing in two
versions:

   Version one: A slidable piston 2 has been placed inside a cylinder liner 1 fixed within the engine 17. Piston pin 4
was fixed in the piston hubs 3. In the middle of the piston pin 4 a spherical surface 5 was assigned for small end of
the connecting-rod 7 bearing. The piston pin 4 spherical surface diameter is less or equal or a little bit more than the
piston pin 4 endings diameter, which are placed in the piston hubs 3. Parts of the piston pin 4 between spherical
surface 5 and endings placed in the piston hubs 3 have diameter less than piston pin 4 endings diameter and piston
pin 4 spherical surface 5. Piston pin 4 placed in the piston hubs 3 is secured against possible displacement by
means of rings 8 placed in piston hubs 3 grooves. The connecting-rod 7 is an element divided into lower and upper
parts. The lower part 9 is integrated with the connecting-rod 7 whilst the upper part 10 is a connecting-rod cap,
fastened by means of screws 11 to the lower part 9 of the connecting-rod 7. The interior part of the connecting-rod 7
is a spherical running track. Inside of it there is spherical part of piston pin 4 bearing. The connecting-rod 7 also has
side parts 12, which are bushings coaxial with the piston pin 4. Inside diameter of side parts 12 is slightly bigger than
the diameter of those piston pin 4 parts, which are located between piston pin 4 endings and spherical surface 5 of
the piston. The inside part of side parts 12 of the connecting-rod 7 may be of shape of the truncated cone.
The big end 13 of the connecting-rod 6 along with its cap 14 has inside a spherical bearing bush 15 with bearing on
a spherical connecting-rod crank-pin 16 of the engine 17 crankshaft. At both sides of the spherical connecting-rod 7
crank-pin 16 of the engine 17 crankshaft there are edges 18 in the distance a little bit more than the width of the big
end of the connecting-rod 6. Thanks to it the connecting-rod has possibility to correct all deviations during the engine
17 work, at the same time retaining the superficial adhesion of the spherical bearing bush of the connecting-rod 7 to
the spherical crank-pin 16 of the crankshaft. The inclination angle of edges 18 at both sides of spherical crank-pin 16
of the crankshaft depends on the shape of the big end 13 of the connecting-rod 6 and its cap 14. It is selected to
enable edges 18 of the spherical crank-pin 16 of the crankshaft to be linear tangent with sides of the big end of the
connecting-rod 13 and its cap 14  sides during connecting-rod 7 turning.


   Version two: A slidable piston 20 has been placed inside a cylinder liner 19 fixed within the engine. At the lower part
of the piston 20 bottom 21, at the crankshaft chamber side a semicircular piston 20 bearing 22 integrated with the
piston 20 was placed. Inside the bearing a spherical head 23 of the connecting-rod 24 was placed. A cap 26 of the
spherical head 23 of the connecting-rod is fastened to semicircular piston 20 bearing 22 by means of the screws 25.
It has a semicircular recess and a hole 27. Via the hole 27 connecting-rod 24 shank is put through. The width of the
hole 27 is slightly bigger than the width of the connecting-rod 24 shank, whilst its length is slightly bigger than the
range of deflection of the connecting-rod 24 to enable correction of possible deviation during the engine work. The
big end of the connecting-rod 28 along with its cap 29 has inside a spherical bearing bush 30 with bearing on a
spherical connecting-rod crank-pin 31 of the engine crankshaft 32. At both sides of the spherical connecting-rod 24
crank-pin 31 of the engine crankshaft 32 there are edges in the distance a little bit more than the width of the big end
of the connecting-rod. Thanks to it the connecting-rod 24 has possibility to correct all deviations during the engine
work, at the same time retaining the superficial adhesion of the spherical bearing bush of the connecting-rod 24 to
the spherical crank-pin 31 of the crankshaft 32. The inclination angle of edges 33 at both sides of spherical crank-pin
31 of the crankshaft 32 depends on the shape of the big end of the connecting-rod 28 and its cap 29. It is selected to
enable edges 33 of the spherical crank-pin 31 of the crankshaft 32 to be linear tangent with sides of the big end of
the connecting-rod 28 and its cap 29 sides during connecting-rod 24 turning.



      Pictures explanation.
    Pic.1. - Presents the cross-section of the method of the connecting-rod bearing in version one.   Pic.2. - Presents
intersection A-A from picture 1.    Pic.3. - Presents the cross-section of the method of the connecting-rod bearing in
version two.    Pic.4. - Presents intersection B-B from picture 3.
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