How to calculate mass of stars which allows to correct
the existence of dark matter and dark energy.

   Object of the Invention. The object of the invention is a method to calculate mass of stars which allows to correct
the existence of dark matter and dark energy.

    State of the Art. There is a colossal oversight in determining the mass of the stars that makes it becomes
necessary to look for the missing 96% of the invisible mass of the universe. Most likely it is so that the missing 96%
of mass is astrophysicists’ error in the calculating the mass of the stars.

    Description of the Invention. The essence of the invention is correct calculation of the mass of stars which will
allow to demonstrate that astrophysics’ investigation for dark matter and dark energy will not produce the expected
results because the missing 96% is an error in the calculating the mass of the stars.

    As an example let us take comparison of the density of our Sun in relation to the density of the red supergiant
which is Betelgeuse star, about 400 light-years distant from the earth. The average density of the Sun was
calculated so that the mass of the Sun has been divided by its volume, i.e.: 1.9891 × 1033 g divided by 1.4115 × 1033
cm3 which is equal to 1.41 g/cm3. Now, if based on astrophysicists’ statements, we calculate the supergiant
Betelgeuse average density, then we obtain: diameter - 630 times the diameter of the Sun, i.e. the volume of
250,047,000 times greater than the volume of the Sun, which gives 3.5294×1041 cm3. At the same time, the mass is
15 times greater than the mass of the sun, which gives 2.9836 × 1034 g. Dividing weight by volume we obtain
0.000000084535 g/cm3, i.e. the average density of Betelgeuse is near 17 million times smaller than the average
density of the Sun!!! And looking at it from the other point of view, the average mass of one cubic meter of
Betelgeuse is thousand times less than the mass of one cubic meter of hydrogen in terrestrial conditions! Even at
first glance it is evident that these assumptions of the mass of Betelgeuse may not be correct. So should we
correctly calculate the mass of this star? Well, in order to do it, we should be focussed on the amount of energy
emitted by this star. Thus, if the brightness of Betelgeuse is about 100,000 times the brightness of the Sun, it should
be stated that in the same time unit, 100,000 times more photons resulting from nuclear fusion in the interior of the
star is issued. So, if Betelgeuse emits 100,000 times more energy compared with the Sun, then the assumption that
100,000 times more mass is involved in releasing this energy, seems to be more accurate. Of course, other
reactions take place inside Betelgeuse compared with reactions that take place inside the Sun. This is probably
caused by different elemental composition of this star and the fact that other forces are present inside of it, but I think
that astrophysicists’ statement that Betelgeuse has a mass of 15 solar masses, is showing just about 1% of its
actual mass.

     Personally, I think that the calculation of the mass of the stars should be thoroughly revised, and thereby, the
missing 96% mass of the universe will be recovered. At the same time, I would like to point out that I do not question
the existence of black holes, but I suggest that their share in the calculation of the mass of the universe is much
smaller than the share commonly assumed.

Radosław Pełka
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