Propulsion of the Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aerial Vehicle
[WIPO ST 10/C PL398500] -  PCT/PL2013/000036


        Field of the Invention.  The field of the invention is propulsion of the vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicle.
The propulsion allows you to construct: maneuverable, stable, safe and energy-efficient vertical take-off and landing
aerial vehicles, which can be used in many sectors of the economy.

      Background.  There are a wide range of aerial vehicles of which planes and helicopters play a key role in
economic applications. The great disadvantage of planes is that most of them require runways, except for planes
equipped with floats. However, you may land freely only in water areas with suitable weather conditions. Due to their
design and principle of operation, planes require maintaining certain minimum speed to avoid losing lift determined
by stall speed. This makes that the plane may only move forward in a straight line or in curves, and can not levitate
at a standstill in the air. Helicopters of vertical take-off and landing do not require a runway but their design makes
them non-energy-efficient vehicles, and their capabilities to achieve the maximum speed are not satisfactory.
Furthermore, helicopters are characterized by moderate stability in the event of a disruption of the surrounding air
streams.
      Summary of the Invention.
   Aerial vehicle operating on the principle of the propulsion of the vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicle according
to the invention is free from the presented inconveniences, which allows to construct the vertical take-off and landing
vehicle with the ability to achieve high speed, which can: levitate at a standstill, move forward and backward, to the
right or to the left, up and down, and can rotate around a vertical axis, as well as to bend forward and backward and
to the right side or to the left side. This has been achieved so that a four air turbine system connected with each
other by a system of drive shafts has been used, wherein two air turbines were placed on one axle on the right side
of the vehicle, while the other two air turbines were placed on one axle on the left side of the vehicle. Drive shafts are
connected with each other via bearing elements seated or connected via beams with a frame of the aerial vehicle.
Air turbines are placed inside the tubes fixed to the frame of the aerial vehicle. Air inlets into the tubes are protected
with crossbars in order to avoid failure in the event of a collision with a bird or an object that could damage air
turbines. Inside the tubes and prior to air turbines, throttles with digitally-controlled propulsion unit are located. The
discharge part of the tubes forms elbow directing gases sideways of the aerial vehicle. At the end of each elbow, a
ring is seated that bears the corresponding air discharge nozzle. Each discharge nozzle is elbow-shaped.
Discharge outlets are connected to the bearing ring and their positioning is digitally-controlled by the propulsion unit.
The discharge part of nozzles has transverse ribs to increase the precision of exhaust gases orientation. Aside of
the discharge nozzles and coaxially with the bearing ring, holes for air side stream were designed in nozzles whose
opening extent is digitally-controlled flaps by propulsion unit. In view of the fact that the left side air turbines of the
aerial vehicle were designed on one axle, like right side air turbines of the aerial vehicle, the front part of rear tubes
has been suitably profiled with an air inlet located above the front tube. Propulsion source of the aerial vehicle is
connected via the main shaft to a gear that drives the layshafts connected to gears that drive the driving shafts
connected to each other, located inside the tubes. Main shaft, layshafts and drive shafts are precisely balanced, but
due to the high rotational speeds of the drive shafts, as well as due to the fairly significant forces of the air flow inside
the tubes, it is recommended that the drive shafts are cased with appropriate shields, which will minimize vibration
and possible deformation of the drive shafts.
The processes of operation of the propulsion according to the invention are as follows: in the first phase, with
throttles closed located prior to the turbines in tubes of the vehicle, the engine is started and wind turbines gain
suitable rotational speed via the system of shafts and gears. In view of the fact that all the shafts are closely
connected with each other, rotational speeds of all gas turbines are the same, and the individual thrust for each
turbine is controlled by suitable angle of throttle opening, independently for each turbine. Depending on your
expectations, the dynamics of the vehicle is determined by selecting specific engine speed and so according to the
invention the aerial vehicle at engine speed of 2500 rpm will be less dynamic than at the engine speed of 4000 rpm.,
while the air turbines rotational speeds may vary from the engine speed, depending on ratio of the gears used. So, if
a single revolution of the motor shaft corresponds to four turbine revolutions, then at the engine speed 2500 rpm. will
correspond to 10000 rpm. of turbines, and at the engine speed of 4000 rpm. will correspond to 16000 rpm. of
turbines. The maximum power of the engine used is adjusted so that with performance of turbines used and with
maximum tubes throttles opening, within the rotational speed range that are specific operating range of the vehicle
the engine is charged up to 70%. Applying this rule will protect the motor against overload and possible damage.
Lifting the vehicle is carried out so that with turbines setpoint rotational speed, which is maintained throughout the
phases of lifting and accelerating the vehicle, by pressing accelerator pedal the pilot increases the throttle opening
angle of tubes, which increases thrust of individual air turbine, whereby along with increasing turbines thrust, the
engine load increases, which is obviously manifested by decrease in speed. Therefore the computer system
controlling the engine throttle opening angle is used, so that regardless of the changing level of the engine load, the
same rotational speed of the gas turbines is maintained. In the aerial vehicle according to the invention a gyro sensor
is used which when lifting the vehicle, sends information to the tubes throttle drive devices control computer, so that
it corrects the thrust of individual turbine in the event of even a minor deviation from the horizontal plane. Once the
vehicle is lifted to the correct height, the pilot can fly forward, backward, to the right side, to the left side, or turn the
vehicle by any angle around the vertical axis of the vehicle, as well as can tilt the vehicle forward, backward, to the
right side, to the left side. The forward flight is carried out so that the pilot-controlled equipment controlling directional
nozzles, moves the nozzles by a determined angle and direct the airflows to the rear of the vehicle, resulting in
moving the vehicle forward. The backward flight is carried out so that the pilot-controlled equipment controlling
directional nozzles, moves the nozzles by a determined angle and direct the airflows to the front of the vehicle,
resulting in moving the vehicle backward. The right side flight is carried out so that the pilot-controlled equipment
controlling holes flaps designed in nozzles, open left nozzles holes by a determined quantity and direct part of
airflows into the left side of the vehicle resulting in moving the vehicle to the right side, while directing part of airflows
via the left nozzles holes reduces lift of the left side of the vehicle and therefore a gyro sensor sends a signal to a
computer that via tubes throttles propelling devices appropriately increases thrust of the wind turbines on the left
side of the vehicle. The left side flight is carried out so that the pilot-controlled equipment controlling holes flaps
designed in nozzles, open right nozzles holes by a determined quantity and direct part of airflows into the right side
of the vehicle resulting in moving the vehicle to the left side, while directing part of airflows via the right  nozzles
holes reduces lift of the right side of the vehicle and therefore a gyro sensor sends a signal to a computer that via
tubes throttles propelling devices appropriately increases thrust of the wind turbines on the right side of the vehicle.
Rotating the vehicle around the vertical axis is carried out so that the pilot-controlled equipment controlling holes
flaps designed in nozzles, open nozzles holes located diagonally and so clockwise rotation is obtained by opening
the left front and right rear nozzle holes, and counterclockwise rotation is obtained by opening the right front and left
rear nozzle holes. The aerial vehicle with propulsion according to the invention can rapidly decelerate, and braking
the vehicle is carried out so that the pilot can switch the phase of flying forward into setting direction nozzles in the
position that corresponds to the phase of the flying backward and start a powerful thrust of gas turbines, while  the
computer controls the tubes throttle opening angle so that the rear turbines produce more thrust than the front ones,
because has to prevent the vehicle’s possible turning during the braking phase.
In order to obtain high stability the aerial vehicle, which due to weather conditions and possible turbulence is exposed
to gusts that may destabilize its smooth lifting, it is possible to use pressure sensors on sides as well as in the front
and rear of the vehicle which combined with the gyro sensor, send information to the  computer that controls tubes
throttle opening angle, the angle of directional nozzles position and the extent of opening the holes designed in
nozzles, so that airflows of the vehicle counter atmospheric air gusts that occur around the vehicle as quickly as
possible.
The aerial vehicle with propulsion according to the invention in one embodiment has vertical and horizontal
stabilizers.
The aerial vehicles with propulsion according to the invention may be made in multiple dimensional versions, as well
as multiple versions as to the number and types of engines used. So the as drive units: internal combustion engines,
electric motors or hybrid units can be used.
The aerial vehicles with propulsion according to the invention may be made in multiple versions as to the number
and location of tubes with the corresponding turbines.
The aerial vehicles with propulsion according to the invention may be made in a supercharged version, where inside
the tubes, behind turbines, the combustion chamber is placed in which fuel is burned, thus increasing thrust of the
vehicle, and in this case directional tubes and nozzles are made of appropriate heat-resistant materials.

      Brief Description of the Drawings.
Fig. 1 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the top with the cross-section of tubes and
directional nozzles.
Fig. 2 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the top with the partial cross-section of right-
side tubes and nozzles directed for takeoff and landing phases of the aerial vehicle.
Fig. 3 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the bottom with nozzles directed for takeoff
and landing phases of the aerial vehicle.
Fig. 4 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the top with the partial cross-section of right-
side tubes and nozzles directed for forward flying phase of the aerial vehicle.
Fig. 5 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the bottom with nozzles directed for forward
flying phase of the aerial vehicle.
Fig. 6 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the top with the partial cross-section of right-
side tubes and nozzles directed for braking or backward flying phase of the aerial vehicle.
Fig. 7 - shows the propulsion according to the invention in a view from the bottom with nozzles directed for braking
or backward flying phase of the aerial vehicle.

      Sample Embodiment of the Present Invention. 
Propulsion of the vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicle was made so that a four air turbine system 13 connected
with each other by a system of drive shafts 10, 16, 19 and 21 has been used, wherein two air turbines 13 were
placed on one axle on the right side of the vehicle, while the other two air turbines 13 were placed on one axle on the
left side of the vehicle. Drive shafts 10, 16, 19 and 21 are connected with each other via bearing elements 9, 12, 15
and 20 seated or connected via beams 11 and 14 with a frame of the aerial vehicle. Air turbines 13 are placed inside
the tubes 1 and 1` fixed to the frame of the aerial vehicle. Air inlets 24 into the tubes 1 and 1` are protected with
crossbars 23 in order to avoid failure in the event of a collision with a bird or an object that could damage air turbines
13. Inside the tubes 1 and 1` and prior to air turbines 13, throttles 17 with digitally-controlled propulsion unit 18 are
located. The discharge part of the tubes 1 and 1` forms elbow directing gases sideways of the aerial vehicle. At the
end of each tube 1 and 1` elbow, a ring 2 is seated that bears the corresponding air discharge nozzle 3. Each
discharge nozzle is elbow-shaped. Discharge outlets 3 are connected to the bearing ring 2 and their positioning is
digitally-controlled by the propulsion unit 8. The discharge part of nozzles 3 has transverse ribs 4 to increase the
precision of exhaust gases orientation. Aside of the discharge nozzles 3 and coaxially with the bearing ring 2, holes
5 for air side stream were designed in nozzles 3 whose opening extent is digitally-controlled flaps 6 by propulsion
unit 7. In view of the fact that the left side air turbines 13 of the aerial vehicle were designed on one axle, like right
side air turbines 13 of the aerial vehicle, the front part of rear tubes 1` has been suitably profiled with an air inlet 24
located above the front tube 1. Propulsion source 25 of the aerial vehicle is connected via the main shaft 26 to a gear
27 that drives the layshafts 28 connected to gears 29 that drive the driving shafts 10, 16, 19 and 21 connected to
each other, located inside the tubes 1 and 1`. Main shaft 26, layshafts 27 and drive shafts 10, 16, 19 and 21 are
precisely balanced, but due to the high rotational speeds of the drive shafts 10, 16, 19 and 21, as well as due to the
fairly significant forces of the air flow inside the tubes 1 and 1`, it is recommended that the drive shafts 10, 16, 19
and 21 are cased with appropriate shields, which will minimize vibration and possible deformation of the drive shafts.

      The Use of the Invention.
The aerial vehicles according to the invention can be widely used in many areas of the economy, for example in
constructing vehicles for police, healthcare, fire brigade, army, all types of Emergency and Rapid Response
Services (ERRS), freight transportation, passenger transportation both single- and multi-passenger vehicles as well
as a few tens- or hundreds-passenger vehicles of the Air-bus type. Due to its specific character, propulsion of the
vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicle  allows to construct aerial vehicles that may be equipped with the system
of parachute or parachutes, giving almost 100% guarantee to travel safely with this vehicle.
patent fig-1 fig-2
fig-3 fig-4 fig-5
fig-6 fig-7 flying car 01
flying car 02 flying car 03 flying car 04
flying car 05 flying car 06 flying car 07
flying car 08 flying car 09 flying car 10
flying car 11 flying car 12 flying car 13
flying car 14 flying car 15
Looking for a partner to commercialize of the project, my expectations I will present the persons concerned.

Contact details: e-mail: virp2@poczta.onet.pl


                                          Is the dream come true about flying cars at your fingertips?


Well, yes, thanks to innovative propulsion of the vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicles, a world in which cars as
the main means of transportation, will be replaced with energy-efficient, high maneuvering-performance aerial
vehicles that may take off and land from your backyard garden, might become reality. These vehicles could be used
in many versions with dedicated purpose.

What is an innovative type of propulsion? Well, this is a design solution developed as based on gas discharge
system that is a propulsion agent. The propulsion developed allows you to create a vehicle with a very fast response
time when making transition from the minimum to the maximum thrust, and with the instant response when
maneuvering the vehicle.

The propulsion concept is based on recognizing certain relationship, which in the world of inventions can be
compared to the invention of the Singer sewing machine, or rather to patenting a needle for this machine, which has
become a "little-big" heart of the device.

To demonstrate the advantage of the innovative propulsion, I would like to emphasize that the major disadvantage of
currently used air propulsions is their significant delay as far as creating the appropriate thrust is concerned when
correcting the vehicle position. The innovative propulsions can be compared to a vehicle that has cylinders with
endless supply of compressed air whose pressure is the same all the time, regardless of what the cross section of
the jet nozzle is. With ‘fast’ control system to control nozzle flaps, it allows you to obtain a vehicle with considerable
maneuvering characteristics. Such a system not only provides you excellent maneuverability but also with excellent
dynamics of the vehicle itself.

Are vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicles doomed to high fuel consumption? Well, I expect that the aerial
vehicles with innovative propulsion according to the invention will be highly energy-efficient. As an example I provide
the 5-passenger vehicle with a total weight of 1 500 kg with internal combustion engine used, with maximum power
of 700 hp moving at 6 000 meters with cruising speed of 500 km/h, will consume 35 liters of petrol per hour, which
for a distance covered allows to obtain the value of fuel consumption at 7 liters/100 km.

There are a number of technological nuances that make up the effective operation of vehicles with the propulsion
used according to the invention. For anyone interested I present a description and drawings of the patent application.
I would like to emphasize at this point that the state of the art study made by the Patent Office shows that, given the
state of the art at the beginning of 2011, my solution is unique.
Greetings

Radosław Pełka
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