Pełka’s Turbine - Revolution in Power Industry
Not to Be Confused with Perpetuum-Mobile
     Patent Application No. P-410894, dated January 8, 2015, entitled ‘The Method of Converting Thermal Energy of Gases into Mechanical Energy and of Converting Mechanical Energy into Thermal Energy of Gases by Means of  Gas Turbine’.
     I am not going to publish here a full patent description of this invention because having carefully analysed animations and description of the thermodynamic theory of variable speed of the gas molecules, each logical person is able to become convinced that the operation of this invention is valid. I wish to emphasize that the turbine is a remedy for the power industry problems and environmental problems of the present world, but, at the same time, it does not completely eliminate the need to use such energy carriers as fossil fuels, and it allows to control completely the processes of their combustion and to eliminate their negative impact on the environment.
      This animation shows a universal turbine that, just to give you a clue:

1.    In the first stage, it operates in the working gas cooling mode, which results in converting the heat acquired into
mechanical energy and then, via electricity generator, into electricity. The balance of operating devices is
represented so that the engine that drives a turbine that forces the gas flow, 1x energy is consumed to operate,
while the receiving device (electricity generator) connected with the working turbines, (for example) 2x energy is
obtained (the energy balance is dependent on many factors such as the working gas temperature, rotational speed
of the working turbines, the amount of used sections of the working turbines, gas flow rate controlled by the forcing
turbine) - working turbines counterclockwise operation and the forcing turbine clockwise operation.

2.     While in the second stage, it operates in the working gas heating mode, which results in converting the
mechanical energy delivered into increased heat of the gas working and then, via electricity generator, into electricity.
The balance of operating devices is represented so that the engine that drives a turbine that forces the gas flow, 1x
energy is consumed to operate, while the other device working in the engine mode, which is connected with the
working turbines, extra energy (for example) 2x energy is engaged (increasing temperature of gas is dependent on
many factors such as the initial temperature of gas, rotational speed of the working turbines, the amount of used
sections of the working turbines, gas flow rate controlled by the forcing turbine) - working turbines clockwise
operation and the forcing turbine clockwise operation.

     In order to better understand the principles of operation of this turbine, study ‘The Thermodynamic Theory of
Variable Speed of Gas Molecules’ thoroughly. In the description of this theory, the influence of components of
thermodynamic moving equipment on the speed of gas molecules vibration and ‘mechanism’ of heat conversion into
work and of the work conversion into heat, i.e. into the speed of gas molecules vibration, is demonstrated at the
molecular level.

   The method of converting thermal energy of gases into mechanical energy and of converting mechanical energy
into thermal energy of gases by means of  gas turbine  is a method which, for example, allows to convert thermal
energy of air into mechanical energy without requiring any fuel combustion, or using any additional heat source. For
example, when cooling air from a temperature of 25°C to a temperature of 5°C by means of a turbine with 1m3 of air
sec efficiency, a device which generates approx. power of 27 HP (20 kW) is obtained. Furthermore, the method
according to the invention allows to create a closed system wherein the cooled refrigerant is re-heated and used for
the device to operate. Its essence is that it is not necessary supply the fresh air for the device to operate properly.
This feature is of extreme importance in the field of space technology where it allows to construct power systems
based on technologies of acquiring thermal energy from splitting the radioactive elements. The method according to
the invention allows to construct devices that as the power supply can use any form of heat contained in air, water,
earth, space, as well as devices powered by all types of fuels that generate heat can be constructed, wherein, in
addition, the method of the invention allows to construct the cooling equipment that does not need involving energy to
operate and even energy is recovered from the cooled agent (air conditioners, whose work results in producing the
extra energy). In this method of the invention, by reversing the turbine vector, it is possible to convert mechanical
energy into thermal energy, wherein in this case, for the device to operate it is necessary to provide mechanical
energy.

     The turbine according to the invention can be made in an open system or in a closed system. The open system
features taking gas automatically from the outside (for example, from the atmospheric air) for the turbine to operate.
Once it is cooled or heated, it is ‘discharged’ to the outside (for example, to the atmosphere). The closed system,
which is mainly used in the cooling gas version, in order to convert thermal energy into mechanical energy, features
‘recirculating’ the cooled gas by relevant elbow extension and tube and when heated, it is directed to the inlet of the
turbine. This solution allows, for example, to create a device that supplies electricity to all kinds of flying vehicles and
space vehicles, where the combustion of liquid fuels or the process of splitting radioactive elements is the heat
source. Moreover, the closed system allows to increase the pressure of the working gas within the tube, and as a
result, it is possible to construct devices with smaller overall dimensions with respect to the power generated.
     The turbine according to the invention, operating in the cooling mode, can be operated in gas internal combustion
turbine mode, where combustion of air-fuel mixture takes place inside a tube before it reaches the working turbines
and combustion products along with the air sucked by the turbine are the working gas for the turbine according to
invention, and it can be operated in external combustion gas turbine mode, where the air-fuel mixture combustion
process takes place outside the tube and the working gas of the turbine is heated via the heat exchanger (heater)
located inside a tube prior to the working turbines of the turbine according to the invention.
   The turbine according to the invention, working in a closed system in the working gas heating mode, allows to heat
the working gas to a high temperature, where the limit temperature is the limit temperature of materials the turbine is
made of. This turbine can be widely used in metallurgy and in the utilization industry, where it is required to apply
high temperatures.
   The turbine according to the invention, working in the working gas cooling mode, allows to  constructing equipment
of materials that do not require high temperature resistance, and so, as far as a device is concerned where the
working gas, before it reaches the working turbines, is, for example, 80°C, and at the outlet 10°C, the turbine allows
to manufacturing a device of plastic materials, which significantly reduces the cost of the serial manufacture of
these devices.
    The turbine according to the invention, opens up vast opportunities in many sectors of the economy such as
power industry, automotive, aviation, sea shipping and inland navigation, astronautics, metallurgy etc. The method
according to the invention may indirectly affect all sectors of economy, and its advantages can be compared with to
the invention of perpetuum-mobile, since if the heat was widely available and used (at the moment there is excess of
heat on Earth), without having to combust fuels, much greater world’s energy potential without side effects, such as
the greenhouse effect, would be opened up. More, it would even allow to alleviate the impact of this effect that is
occurring now. An example of the Baltic Sea can be used here. If heat 1°C would be recovered of it, current energy
needs of Poland for a period of 100 years would be satisfied. Creation of ice rinks in the summertime or in winter
villages may be another example. Their maintenance results in producing free energy. It is worth noting that the
device according to the invention in the version where it acquires energy of heat of the atmospheric air, can be
operated during the summertime as well as in winter, even in arctic conditions, since it may be operated, for
example, at a temperature of -50°C by cooling the working gas to a temperature of, for example -70 °C.
The thermodynamic theory in English - PDF
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